Outline of the Daf: Chulin 56-60 prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

POINT BY POINT OUTLINE
OF THE DAF

THE DAVID BEN AHARON HA'LEVI ROSENWALD MASECHES CHULIN
Sponsored by Dr. Lindsay and Rivka Rosenwald

prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

[email protected], www.dafyomi.co.il

Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

CHULIN
56


Ask the
Kollel

1)

TEREIFOS IN BIRDS

(a)

(Mishnah): Any of the following makes a bird Tereifah:

1.

The Veshet was punctured; the majority of the Kaneh was cut; a weasel bit it on (a certain portion of) the head; the stomach or small intestines were punctured;

(b)

It fell into a fire and the innards were scorched;

1.

If the innards turned green, it is Tereifah. If they are red, it is Kosher.

(c)

If it was trampled or hit against a wall, and was still quivering, if it was slaughtered after 24 hours (and the internal organs were checked), it is Kosher.

(d)

(Gemara - Rav, Shmuel and Levi): To check (when a weasel bit it on the head), one puts his hand in the mouth and presses:

1.

If brain matter exudes from the head, it is Tereifah. If not, it is Kosher.

2.

This is like the opinion that it is Tereifah only if the inner and outer membranes of the brain was punctured.

(e)

Question: According to the opinion that it is Tereifah even if only the outer membrane was punctured, how can we rely on this test? (Perhaps nothing exudes because the inner membrane is intact!)

(f)

Answer: The inner membrane is soft. It would break under the pressure.

(g)

(Ze'iri): One cannot check for a weasel's bite, because its teeth are fine.

(h)

Question: Why is this a problem? If there is a puncture, brain matter will exude!

(i)

Answer (R. Oshaya): One cannot check because its teeth are fine and crooked.

(j)

Retraction (R. Oshaya): We can check, like Reish Lakish and R. Yochanan taught.

1.

(Reish Lakish): We may check by hand (like above).

2.

(R. Yochanan): We may also check using an (iron) nail (to see if it gets caught in a crevice in the membrane).

(k)

Reish Lakish and R. Yochanan argue like the following Tana'im;

1.

  1. Yehudah would check by hand. R. Nechemyah would check with a needle.

2.

  1. Yehudah: Through using a needle, you sometimes inadvertently create a hole (and rule that it is Tereifah), and cause a loss to the owners!

3.

  1. Nechemyah: Checking by hand is not reliable. You sometimes permit a Nevelah!

i.

Really, it is only a Tereifah, for it was slaughtered.

(l)

(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): If a bird was bitten by a weasel, we may check it by hand, not with a nail;

1.

If the skull was broken, even if the membrane is intact, it is Tereifah.

(m)

Question: If so, we cannot rely on the above test (which is only for the membrane)!

(n)

Answer: A broken skull is Tereifah only in birds that live in water, since they have no membrane.

1.

Really, they have a membrane, just it is very soft.

(o)

Question (Rav Nachman): Do Rav and Shmuel really rely on testing by hand? Levi's Beraisa refutes them!

1.

(Beraisa - Levi): If a defect makes an animal Tereifah, it makes a bird Tereifah;

2.

A broken skull, even though the membrane is intact, is Tereifah only regarding birds.

(p)

Answer: A broken skull is Tereifah only in birds that live in water, since their membrane is soft.

(q)

  1. Chana's chicken had a broken skull, but the membrane was intact. Rav Masna was Machshir.

1.

  1. Chana: Levi taught that this is Tereifah!

2.

Rav Masna: He referred only to birds that live in water.

(r)

Rav Shizbi would check by sunlight. Rav Yemar would check with water (he would see if water can leave through the wound. Alternatively, he would see if water put on the wound externally would whiten, which shows that it mixed with brain matter). Rav Acha bar Yakov would check with straw (the way one checks with a nail.)

56b----------------------------------------56b

1.

(Rav Shizbi): Our geese are considered birds that live in water.

2)

IF THE INTESTINES WERE BURNED

(a)

(Mishnah): If it fell in a fire...

(b)

(R. Yochanan): Just like a puncture of any size (in the innards) is Tereifah, also greenness of any size.

(c)

Question (Rav Yosef, son of R. Yehoshua ben Levi): If the part of the liver by the innards turned green, what is the law?

(d)

Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): It is Tereifah.

(e)

Question: This should be no worse than if it was missing, but that is Kosher!

(f)

Answer (Rava): If this part turned green, it indicates that the small intestines themselves were singed, so it is Tereifah.

(g)

  1. Yehoshua ben Levi sent a chicken to R. Elazar Hakapar b'Ribi.

1.

  1. Elazar: It is green, it is Kosher.

2.

Question (Mishnah): If they are green, it is Tereifah!

3.

Answer: That only refers to the stomach, heart and liver, which are normally red.

4.

Support (Beraisa): Greenness is a Tereifah only in the stomach, heart and liver, which are normally red.

(h)

  1. Avahu checked a chicken for R. Yitzchak bar Yosef. He ruled that it is Tereifah due to redness (in the small intestines.)

(i)

Question (Mishnah): If they are red, it is Kosher!

(j)

Answer: If what is normally red turns green, or vice-versa, it is Tereifah;

1.

Redness is Kosher only in the stomach, heart and liver.

(k)

(Rav Shmuel bar Chiya): If what was red turned green, and reverted to red when it was cooked, it is Kosher.

1.

The greenness was due to smoke. It went away during the cooking.

(l)

(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): If red organs turned green during cooking, it is Tereifah.

1.

This reveals that they were burned while the animal was alive.

(m)

Inference (Rav Ashi): If so, a bird that fell in a fire should not be eaten until it is cooked!

(n)

Rejection: If we do not see Simanim that the innards were singed, we are not concerned for this.

(o)

(Mishnah): If it was trampled or hit against a wall...

(p)

(R. Elazar ben Antigonus): In either case, it must be checked.

3)

DEFECTS THAT DO NOT MAKE BIRDS TEREIFAH

(a)

(Mishnah): The following defects do not make a bird Tereifah:

1.

The Kaneh was punctured or cracked; a weasel bit it on the head (in a place that will not kill it); the crop was punctured;

i.

Rebbi says, even if the crop was removed.

2.

The intestines came out (and were returned), but they were not punctured;

3.

The wings or legs were broken;

4.

The large feathers fell off;

5.

  1. Yehudah says, if the small feathers fell off, it is Tereifah.

(b)

(Gemara - Beraisa): R. Simai and R. Tzadok ruled about a removed womb, like Rebbi rules about the crop.

(c)

Question: Did they rule that a removed womb is Tereifah, and about a crop like Rebbi;

1.

Or, did they rule that a removed womb is Kosher, like Rebbi rules about the crop, but they hold that a removed crop is Tereifah?

2.

This question is unresolved.

(d)

(Rabah): The top of the crop is like the Veshet. (If it is punctured, it is Tereifah.)

1.

(Rav Bivi bar Abaye): This applies from where it starts to get thin.

(e)

(Mishnah): The intestines were removed...

(f)

(R. Shmuel bar R. Yitzchak): This is only if they were returned the same way. If they were reversed, it is Tereifah.

1.

"Hu Ascha va'YKoNenecha" - Hash-m made bases (Kenim) in man. If they are reversed, man cannot live.

(g)

(Beraisa - R. Meir): "Hu Ascha va'Ykonenecha" - Hash-m made Yisrael like a great city that has everything, i.e. Kohanim, prophets, ministers, and kings. "Mimenu Finah Mimenu Yased" (teaches that the cornerstone and bolt, i.e. the essential leaders, are from Yehudah).

(h)

A man fell from the roof. (The skin over) his stomach split, and his intestines came out. A Nochri looking on made an illusion, as if he slaughtered the man's son;

1.

The man's anguish caused his intestines to recoil into his body without reversing. The Nochri sewed him up (and he lived.)

Chulin 57

1)

TRIEFOS OF THE LEGS

(a)

(Mishnah): The legs were cut...

(b)

Birds with cut legs were brought before Rava. He checked that the sinews were intact at the juncture of the sinews, and ruled that they are Kosher.

(c)

(Rav Yehudah citing Rav): If the foreleg of an animal became detached, it is Kosher; regarding a bird, it is Tereifah.

(d)

If the wings of a bird became detached, it is Tereifah. We are concerned lest the lung was punctured.

(e)

(Shmuel and R. Yochanan): We check the lungs. If they were not punctured, it is Kosher.

1.

(Chizkiyah): Birds don't have lungs.

2.

  1. Yochanan: They have lungs. They are the size of a rose leaf. They are between the wings.

3.

Question: What does Chizkiyah mean?

i.

He cannot mean that birds don't have lungs at all. We see that they do!

4.

Answer #1: Rather, they have lungs, but defects in the lungs do not make a bird Tereifah.

5.

Rejection: Levi taught that any defect that is Tereifah in an animal is Tereifah in a bird (including punctured lungs!);

i.

If the skull is broken and the membrane is intact, this is Tereifah only in birds.

6.

Answer #2: A bird does not become Tereifah through an injury to the lungs due to falling or being burned.

7.

Rejection: R. Yochanan countered 'they have lungs. They are the size of a rose leaf. They are between the wings.' This implies that Chizkiyah holds that they have no lungs at all!

8.

Answer #3 (R. Yosi bar Chanina): Indeed, he meant that they have no lungs at all. Chizkiyah was not familiar with birds.

(f)

(Rav Huna citing Rav): If the leg of a bird became detached, it is Kosher.

(g)

Question (Rabah bar Rav Huna): Chachamim of Pumbadisa say that Rav Yehudah cites Rav to say that it is Tereifah!

(h)

Answer (Rav Huna): Different areas hold differently. (In Pumbadisa, they hold that this is Tereifah, therefore Rav did not want to permit this in front of them. Rav Yehudah mistakenly deduced that Rav himself holds that it is Tereifah.)

(i)

  1. Yirmeyah bar Aba was checking the juncture of the sinews of birds.

1.

  1. Aba: Why do you bother? Rav Huna cited Rav to say that if the leg of a bird became detached, it is Kosher!

2.

  1. Yirmeyah: A Mishnah teaches that if an animal's (hind) leg was cut below the knee, it is Kosher. If it was cut above the knee, or if the juncture of the sinews was removed, it is Tereifah;

i.

Rav said that the same applies to birds.

3.

  1. Aba: This contradicts what Rav Huna said in Rav's name!

i.

  1. Yirmeyah had no answer.

4.

  1. Aba: Perhaps cutting is Tereifah, but not if it was detached.

5.

  1. Yirmeyah: Rav explicitly said this!

i.

We sometimes find that cutting in one place makes an animal Tereifah, but cutting away more does not!

(j)

(R. Zeira citing Rav Huna citing Rav): If the leg of a bird became detached, it is Tereifah.

(k)

  1. Aba: After you came to Eretz Yisrael, we explicitly heard Rav Huna cite Rav to say that it is Kosher!

57b----------------------------------------57b

1.

Also, when I debated with R. Yirmeyah, he ultimately agreed that Rav explicitly was Machshir!

2.

What is your source that it is Tereifah?

(l)

  1. Zeira: R. Chiya bar Aba cited Rav to say that it is Tereifah.

(m)

(R. Yakov bar Idi citing R. Yochanan): It is Tereifah.

(n)

(R. Yakov bar Idi): Had R. Yochanan been present when Rebbi and R. Chanina permitted this, he would not have shown any trace of dissent.

1.

(R. Chanina citing Rebbi): If a bird's leg became detached, it is Kosher.

2.

  1. Chanina had such a bird, and Rebbi permitted it. R. Chanina preserved it and was constantly showing it to Talmidim.

(o)

The Halachah does not follow these lenient opinions. rather it is like R. Yehoshua ben Levi;

1.

Question (R. Yosi ben Nehurai): What size hole in the Kaneh is Tereifah?

2.

Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi - Mishnah): The size of an Italian Isar is Tereifah.

3.

Question (R. Yosi): There was a sheep that had a hole in its Kaneh. They sealed it, and it healed!

i.

Counter-question (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): This is no proof! The Halachah is established throughout Yisrael that a detached leg is Tereifah, yet the leg of R. Shimon ben Chalifta's chicken came off, and they covered it with a reed, and it healed!

ii.

Answer: You must say that even though it healed, the chicken did not live a year;

4.

Answer: Also the sheep did not survive a year!

2)

DEFECTS THAT IMPROVED

(a)

  1. Shimon ben Chalifta tried to get R. Yehudah to retract his opinion that a bird missing the small feathers is Tereifah.

1.

  1. Shimon had a chicken whose small feathers had fallen out. He put it in an oven and put a garment over it. It grew more feathers than it had initially.

2.

Question: Perhaps R. Yehudah holds that a Tereifah sometimes shows signs of improvement!

3.

Answer: It will not show improvement regarding the defect that is Tereifah.

(b)

  1. Shimon ben Chalifta sought to verify "lazy one, observe the ant and grow wise. It has no ruler or king";

1.

In summer, he made shade over an anthill. An ant came out. R. Shimon made a mark on the ant. It went back to inform the other ants of the shade. (Ants enjoy shade.) R. Shimon removed the shade.

2.

The other ants came out, and the sun beat upon them. They killed the marked ant.

3.

  1. Shimon: This shows that they have no king. If they had a king, they would not do this!

4.

Objections (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Perhaps the king was with them when they killed it! Or, perhaps they were fulfilling the king's decree (to kill liars)! Or, perhaps the previous king died, and they had not yet appointed the next king!

i.

We know that they have no king only from the verse.

(c)

(Rav Huna): If an injured animal survives 12 months, this shows that it was not Tereifah.

(d)

Question (Beraisa): A sign of Tereifos is that the animal cannot bear children;

1.

  1. Shimon ben Gamliel says, if it improves, it is Kosher. If it gets worse, it is Tereifah;

2.

Rebbi says, if it lives 30 days, this shows that it is Kosher.

3.

Chachamim: Many Tereifos survive two or three years!

(e)

Answer: Rav Huna holds like the following Tana (R. Shimon ben Elazar);

1.

(Beraisa): If there is a long hole in the skull, or many small holes that add up to the area of a drill (it is Tereifah);

2.

  1. Yosi ben ha'Meshulam says, a case occurred in which a man's skull was pierced. They covered over it with a gourd, and he lived.

3.

  1. Shimon ben Elazar: That is no proof (that this is not a Tereifah). He was hurt in summer, and he died that winter!

(f)

(Rav Acha bar Yakov): The Halachah is, a Tereifah can give birth, and it can improve.

Chulin 58

1)

EGGS OF A TEREIFAH

(a)

Version #1 (according to Rav Acha - Ameimar): If a female bird became a Tereifah, eggs that were inside at the time are forbidden;

1.

Eggs that formed later are permitted, for Zeh v'Zeh Gorem (something that comes from two sources, one of which (in this case, the father) is permitted) is permitted.

(b)

Question (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): They (Rashi - R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua; Tosfos - Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel) agree that eggs of a Tereifah are forbidden, for they grew inside a forbidden bird.

(c)

Answer (Ameimar): That refers to eggs that developed without a male (the hen warmed itself in the earth).

1.

Question: Why didn't he answer that the Mishnah discusses eggs inside the bird when it became Tereifah?

2.

Answer: If so, it should not say that the eggs grew inside a forbidden bird, rather, that they were completed inside a forbidden bird.

(d)

Question (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): The child of a Tereifah may not be offered (for a Korban);

1.

  1. Yehoshua says, it may be offered.

2.

According to Ameimar, surely they argue about when the mother became Tereifah, and then it became pregnant. R. Eliezer forbids Zeh v'Zeh Gorem, and R. Yehoshua permits.

3.

Summation of question: If so, why do they argue about Korbanos? The argument applies even to Chulin!

(e)

Answer: They argue about Korbanos to show the extremity of R. Yehoshua's opinion. The child is Kosher even for a Korban.

1.

Question: They should argue about Chulin to show the extremity of R. Eliezer's opinion, who forbids even Chulin!

2.

Answer: It is better to show the extremity of the lenient opinion.

(f)

(Mishnah): They agree that eggs of a Tereifah are forbidden.

1.

This discusses eggs that developed without a male. They are due solely to the mother.

(g)

Version #1 is like Rav Acha, who holds like Rav Acha bar Yakov. Ravina argues with Rav Acha bar Yakov, and reported the discussion differently.

(h)

Version #2 - Ravina - (Ameimar): If a female bird became a Safek Tereifah, we hold onto eggs that were inside at the time:

1.

If the bird later forms more eggs, all the eggs are permitted. If it does not form more eggs, the (first) eggs are forbidden.

(i)

Question (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): They agree that eggs of a Tereifah are forbidden, for they grew inside a forbidden animal.

(j)

Answer (Ameimar): This discusses eggs inside the bird when it became Tereifah.

(k)

Question: If so, it should not say that the eggs grew inside a forbidden bird, rather, that they were completed inside a forbidden bird!

(l)

Answer: Indeed, the Mishnah should say that they were completed inside a forbidden bird.

(m)

Question (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): One may not offer offspring of a Tereifah;

1.

  1. Yehoshua permits.

2.

According to Ameimar, surely they argue about when the mother became Tereifah when it was already pregnant. R. Eliezer holds that a fetus is like a limb of the mother (when the mother becomes Tereifah, also the fetus is forbidden). R. Yehoshua holds that the fetus is independent.

3.

Summation of question: If so, why do they argue about Korbanos? The argument applies even to Chulin!

(n)

Answer: They argue about Korbanos to show the extremity of R. Yehoshua's opinion. The child is Kosher even for a Korban.

1.

Question: They should argue about Chulin to show the extremity of R. Eliezer's opinion, who forbids even Chulin!

2.

Answer: It is better to show the extremity of the lenient opinion.

(o)

(Mishnah): They agree that eggs of a Tereifah are forbidden.

1.

This discusses eggs that were inside when it became Tereifah.

(p)

Question: What is the reason?

(q)

Answer: They are like part of the bird. (They became forbidden with it.) (end of Version #2)

(r)

The Halachah is, if a Safek Tereifah male lives 12 months, it is Kosher. If a Safek Tereifah female bears new eggs, it is Kosher.

(s)

(Rav Huna): Any creature without bones cannot last 12 months.

(t)

(Rav Papa): From Rav Huna's teaching we may derive the coming (second) law of Shmuel.

1.

(Shmuel): If a gourd became wormy while growing, it is forbidden;

58b----------------------------------------58b

2.

Dates that were harvested 12 months ago are permitted. (We assume that any worms inside developed inside and never left. They were not "Shoretz Al ha'Aretz". Rosh (citing Ra'avad) - even though dead worms are forbidden, after 12 months, they are totally dry. They are like earth.)

3.

(Rav): A mosquito does not live more than a day. A fly does not live more than a year.

4.

Question (Rav Papa): People say that a female mosquito rebelled on her husband for seven years because he once enjoyed sucking a man's blood without telling her!

i.

Counter-question (Abaye): People also say that one can hang 60 Manim (huge measures) of iron on a mosquito's stinger. Of course that cannot be. It is too small!

ii.

Answer: Rather, relative to its size, one can hang 60 Manim;

iii.

Similarly, relative to its lifespan, it rebelled for seven years.

2)

EXTRA OR MISSING ORGANS

(a)

(Mishnah): If an animal has five or three legs, this is a blemish;

(b)

(Rav Huna): This refers to the forelegs, but a missing or extra hind leg is a Tereifah.

1.

This is because anything extra is considered as if it is missing.

(c)

There was a Chayah with an extra Sanya Divi (blind gut). Ravina ruled that it is Tereifah.

1.

If the two Sanya Divi pour into each other, it is Kosher.

(d)

An animal had a conduit connecting the Beis ha'Kosos and the Masas; Rav Ashi was about to rule that it is Tereifah.

1.

Rav Huna Mar bar Chiya: All self-grazing animals have such a conduit!

(e)

An animal had a conduit connecting the Beis ha'Kosos and the Keres. Mar bar Rav Ashi was about to rule that it is Kosher.

1.

  1. Oshaya: You cannot extrapolate! We said that it is Kosher only when the conduit connects the Beis ha'Kosos and the Masas!

(f)

Noson bar Shilo was the chief Shochet of Tzipori. He testified in front of Rebbi that two (beginnings of) small intestines in an animal is Tereifah. In a bird, it is Kosher.

1.

This applies only if they emanate from two places; but if they emanate from one place, and finish within a finger's width, it is Kosher.

2.

(Rav Ami or Rav Asi): It is Kosher only if they later rejoin.

3.

(The other of Rav Ami and Rav Asi): It is Kosher even if they don't later rejoin.

4.

According to the first opinion, they must merge within a finger's width.

i.

Question: According to the second opinion, what is the meaning of 'they finish within a finger's width'?

ii.

Answer: They merge at least a finger's width before the rectum.

3)

IF THE SMALL FEATHERS ARE MISSING

(a)

(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): If the small feathers are missing, it is Tereifah.

(b)

(R. Yochanan): R. Yehudah and R. Yishmael agree with each other;

1.

(Mishnah - R. Yishmael): The small feathers join. (Rashi - regarding Chutz li'Zmano, intent to eat these feathers is like intent to eat the meat. Tosfos - they join to the meat to comprise a Shi'ur (the volume of an egg) for Tum'as Ochlim.)

(c)

Rejection (Rava): Perhaps they argue with each other!

1.

Perhaps R. Yehudah said only that if the feathers are missing it is Tereifah, for they are needed to protect the skin, but he holds like Chachamim, they are not like meat;

2.

Perhaps R. Yishmael said only that they are like meat, but even without them it is Kosher, for they do not protect the skin!

4)

FOODS THAT CAN KILL

(a)

(Mishnah): The following animals are Kosher:

1.

One that was afflicted by excess blood, or inhaled smoke, or became sick through chills, or ate Hardufni (a poison that kills animals), or ate cat excrement, or drank exposed water (into which snakes may have put venom);

(b)

If it ate a poison (that kills people) or was bitten by a snake, it is Kosher, but one may not eat it lest the meat is poisonous.

(c)

(Gemara - Shmuel): If Chiltis (a hard, pointy plant) is put down an animal's throat, it is Tereifah, for it will puncture the innards.

(d)

Question (Rav Shizbi - Beraisa): If an animal was afflicted by excess blood, or inhaled smoke, became sick through chills, ate Hardufni, or ate cat excrement, drank exposed water, or if Chiltis, Tei'ah or peppers were put down its throat, or it ate poison, it is Kosher;

1.

If it was bitten by a snake or a rabid dog, it is Kosher, but one may not eat it, due to danger.

2.

This Beraisa refutes Shmuel regarding Chiltis, and contradicts the Mishnah regarding poison!

(e)

Answer - part 1: Shmuel discusses eating stalks of Chiltis. The Beraisa discusses leaves of Chiltis.

(f)

Answer - part 2: The Beraisa discusses poison that kills animals. The Mishnah discusses poison that kills people.

(g)

Question: The Beraisa discusses also Hardufni, which kills animals! (Surely, the 'poison' it refers to kills people.)

(h)

Answer: It discusses Hardufni and another poison that kills animals.

(i)

Question: What is Tei'ah?

(j)

Answer (Rav Yehudah): It is the poisonous root of aconite.

Chulin 59

1)

FOODS THAT CAN KILL (cont.)

(a)

(Rav Yehudah): If one eats three measures of Chiltis before his meal, his skin will come off.

1.

  1. Avahu: I ate one measure. Had I not been in water, my skin would have come off - "Chachmah gives life to Chachamim".

(b)

(Rav Yosef): Ingesting the wrong combination of eggs, nuts, pits and honey in summer (before the meal) can uproot the heart.

(c)

A deer whose hind legs were cut was brought before the Reish Galusa. Rav checked the juncture of the sinews and ruled that it is Kosher. He planned to eat from it lightly roasted.

1.

Shmuel: You should be concerned lest a snake bit it (on a leg that was cut off)!

2.

Rav: How can we check for this?

3.

Shmuel instructed to put it in the oven (to fully roast it). It started crumbling.

i.

Shmuel: "No mishap will occur to a Tzadik."

ii.

Rav: "No secret is withheld from you."

2)

THE SIMANIM OF KOSHER SPECIES

(a)

(Mishnah): The Torah gives Simanim that show which animals and Chayos are Tahor, but does not give Simanim for birds;

1.

Chachamim gave Simanim for birds. Any bird that is Dores is Tamei. (Here, Dores does not mean to poison through scratching. Rashi - it holds its food in its claws while eating; R. Tam (61A) - it eats its prey before it dies.)

2.

If a bird has an extra toe, and a crop, and the stomach peels off, it is Tahor.

3.

  1. Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok says, any bird that divides its claws (when perching on a stick) is Tamei.

(b)

If a Chagav (grasshopper or locust) has four legs and two extra forelegs, and four wings that cover the majority (of the body), it is Kosher;

1.

  1. Yosi says, it must be called Chagav.

(c)

Fish that have Senapir and Kaskeses are Kosher;

(d)

  1. Yehudah says, it must have two Kaskesin and one Senapir.

1.

Kaskeses are fixed in the body (scales). Senapir is what it uses to swim (fin.)

(e)

(Gemara - Beraisa): The Simanim of Tahor animals are "the hooves are split..." - any animal that chews the cud surely has no upper teeth, and it is Tahor.

(f)

Objection: This is not always true. A camel chews the cud and has no upper teeth, but it is Tamei!

(g)

Answer #1: A camel has two upper teeth (or tooth-like protrusions. Tosfos - this answer is incomplete. It does not answer for rabbits. Later, the Gemara asks about rabbits. Rashba - we currently understand the Beraisa to say 'any animal that chews the cud and has no upper teeth is Tahor'. This answer is complete.)

1.

Objection #1: A young camel (chews the cud and) does not have any upper teeth (and it is Tamei)!

2.

Objection #2: Rabbits and Shafanim chew the cud, have upper teeth and are Teme'im! (Some identify Shafan with a hare, rock-badger, or a kind of woodchuck.)

3.

Objection #3: The Torah does not say that Taharah depends on upper teeth!

(h)

Answer #2 (to all questions): The Beraisa means that if an animal has no upper teeth, it surely chews the cud and has split hooves, so it is Tahor.

(i)

Question: Why must we look for teeth to know about the hooves? One can see whether the hooves are split!

(j)

Answer: This rule is needed when the hooves are cut off. It suffices to check the mouth.

1.

(Rav Chisda): If one finds an animal in the wilderness whose hooves are cut off, he checks the mouth. If there are upper teeth, it is Tamei. If not, it is Tahor;

2.

He may rely on this only if he knows that the animal is not a camel.

3.

Question: Camels have two upper teeth, the rule works for camels!

4.

Correction: Rather, he must know that it is not a young camel.

5.

Question: Just like young camels are exceptions to the rule, perhaps there are more exceptions!

6.

Answer (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "The camel, for it chews the cud" - the Torah lists all the Tamei animals that chew the cud. All others that chew the cud are Tehorim. (Chazal knew that any animal without upper teeth chews the cud. Seemingly, we should be concerned for exceptions to this rule, for the Torah did not teach it! Perhaps it is impossible to chew food sufficiently without upper teeth, unless it has been partially digested in a stomach.)

(k)

(Rav Chisda): If one finds an animal on the road whose mouth is cut off, he checks the hooves;

1.

If they are split, it is Tahor. If not, it is Tamei;

2.

He may only rely on this if he knows that the animal is not a pig.

3.

Question: Just like pigs are exceptions, perhaps there are more exceptions!

4.

Answer (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "The pig, for it has split hooves" teaches that pigs are the only Tamei animals with split hooves.

(l)

(Rav Chisda): If one finds an animal in the wilderness whose hooves and mouth are cut off, he checks the flesh;

1.

If it tears lengthwise and widthwise, it is Tahor. If not, it is Tamei;

2.

He may only rely on this if he knows that the animal is not an Arod (wild ass?).

3.

Question: Just like the Arod is an exception, perhaps there are more exceptions!

4.

Answer: We have a tradition from Moshe from Sinai that there are no other exceptions.

(m)

Question: Where does he check the flesh?

(n)

Answer (Abaye): He checks under the tailbone.

3)

THE SIMANIM OF NON-DOMESTICATED ANIMALS

(a)

(Beraisa): These are the Simanim of Chayos...

(b)

(Interjection): Chayos have the same Simanim (of Taharah) like domestic animals!

(c)

Answer (R. Zeira): The Beraisa gives the Simanim to distinguish Chayos from Behemos. The difference is that Chelev of Chayos is permitted.

59b----------------------------------------59b

(d)

(Beraisa): These are the Simanim of Chayos, whose Chelev is permitted - any animal with horns and hooves;

1.

  1. Dosa says, it suffices if it has horns. Hooves is not a sufficient Siman by itself.

2.

A Keresh (giraffe?), even though it only has one horn, (its Chelev) is permitted.

(e)

Question: The rule is not reliable. Goats have horns and hooves, but their Chelev is forbidden!

(f)

Answer: The horns must grow in shells (to be a Siman).

(g)

Question: This is not true. An ox has shelled horns, but its Chelev is forbidden!

(h)

Answer: Having grooved horns is a Siman.

(i)

Question: Goats have grooved horns, but their Chelev is forbidden!

(j)

Answer: The horns must branch out. (Tosfos - they must be straight, but bent at the end.)

(k)

Objection: A deer is a Chayah, but its horns are not like this!

(l)

Answer: Having such horns is a sure Siman that it is a Chayah. If not, the horns must be shelled, grooved and pointed;

1.

The grooves must be very close to each other.

2.

The argument about goats of Karkuz depended on this.

(m)

The Reish Galusa had a goat of Karkuz. He stored up its Chelev.

1.

Rav Achai: The Chelev is forbidden.

2.

Rav Shmuel brei d'R. Avahu (permitted it and) ate some of the Chelev.

3.

(Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): The Halachah follows Rav Shmuel. Even so, due to respect for Rav Achai, one should not permit the Chelev in front of Rav Achai.

(n)

(Beraisa): Even though a Keresh has one horn, its Chelev is permitted.

4)

SPECIAL CREATIONS OF HASH-M

(a)

(Rav Yehudah): A Keresh is the deer of Bei Ilai. Tigras is the lion of Bei Ilai.

(b)

(Rav Kahana): There are nine Amos between the sides of a lion of Bei Ilai.

(c)

(Rav Yosef): A deer of Bei Ilai is 16 Amos long.

1.

Kaiser: Your G-d is compared to a lion. Valorous men can kill lions!

2.

  1. Yehoshua ben Chananyah: He is compared to a lion of Bei Ilai.

3.

The Kaiser insisted on seeing this lion, above R. Yehoshua's protests. R. Yehoshua asked Hash-m to bring the lion.

4.

When the lion was 400 Parsah away, it roared. All the pregnant women miscarried, and the walls fell down. When the lion was 300 Parsah away, it roared; people's teeth fell out, and the Kaiser fell off his chair. He asked R. Yehoshua to ask Hash-m that the lion return to its place.

Chulin 60

1)

ONE WHO DID NOT FATHOM HASH-M'S GREATNESS

(a)

Kaiser: I want to see your G-d.

(b)

  1. Yehoshua ben Chananyah: You cannot.

(c)

The Kaiser insisted. On a summer day, R. Yehoshua asked him to look at the sun.

1.

Kaiser: I cannot.

2.

  1. Yehoshua: The sun is a creation of Hash-m, and you cannot look at it. All the more so, you cannot see Hash-m Himself!

(d)

Kaiser: I want to prepare a meal for Hash-m.

(e)

  1. Yehoshua: You cannot. His legions are too numerous.

(f)

The Kaiser insisted. R. Yehoshua told him to prepare it on the bank of a certain river.

1.

The Kaiser prepared for six months in summer. A wind came, and blew all he had prepared into the river.

2.

The Kaiser prepared for six months in winter. Rain came, and washed all he had prepared into the river.

3.

Kaiser: What is happening?

4.

  1. Yehoshua: Those who clean the floor in front of Hash-m consumed it.

5.

Kaiser: I cannot prepare a meal for Hash-m.

(g)

Kaiser's daughter: Your G-d is a carpenter - "He makes a ceiling with water in His upper chambers." Tell Him make for me a weaving rod.

1.

  1. Yehoshua agreed. He prayed, and she became leprous. It was customary in Rome to seat a leper in the market and to give him a weaving rod, so people will know to pray for him.

2.

  1. Yehoshua: Hash-m gave you a nice rod!

3.

Kaiser's daughter: Ask Him to take it back.

4.

  1. Yehoshua: Hash-m gives. He does not take.

2)

HASH-M'S CREATIONS

(a)

(Rav Yehudah): All the following should be large in an ox - the belly, hooves, head and tail;

1.

All of these should be small in a donkey.

2.

This is relevant to commerce. (If one sells an ox or donkey, it should meet these specifications.)

(b)

(Rav Yehudah): The ox that Adam offered had one horn on its forehead - "will be more pleasing to Hash-m than a bull Makrin (with horns) and hooves."

(c)

Question: "Makrin" is plural. This implies that it had two horns!

(d)

Answer: Although it is read "Makrin", it is written without a Yud, to connote the singular.

(e)

(Rav Yehudah): Adam offered an ox whose horns preceded (came up from the ground before) its hooves. The above verse mentions the horns before the hooves.

(f)

(This implies that it was created mature, with horns.) This supports R. Yehoshua ben Levi (regarding full stature):

1.

(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Everything created in the six days of creation was created in is full stature, with its consent, and in its beauty - "Heaven and earth were finished, and all Tzeva'am (their legions)." We may read this 'Tzivyonam' (their (full) beauty, and the form they chose.)

(g)

(R. Chanina bar Papa): When Hash-m created the trees, he commanded that each species sprout by itself. The grass reasoned: even though it is the nature of trees to grow far apart, Hash-m insisted that they keep separate. It is the nature of grass to grow mixed together, all the more so each species should keep separate!

1.

Each species sprouted by itself. The world minister (the angel Metatron) exclaimed "Hash-m's honor will be forever. Hash-m will exult in his works."

(h)

Question (Ravina): According to R. Chanina bar Papa, may one graft different species of grass onto each other?

60b----------------------------------------60b

1.

Since the Torah did not say that each must grow by itself, this should be permitted;

2.

Or, since Hash-m agreed to the grass' Kal va'Chomer, it is as if the Torah wrote that each must be separate!

i.

This question is unresolved.

(i)

Contradiction (R. Shimon ben Pazi): It says "Hash-m made the two great luminaries", and it says "the great luminary... and the small luninary"!

(j)

Answer (R. Shimon ben Pazi): Initially, Hash-m made them both great. The moon objected 'two kings cannot share one crown!'

1.

Hash-m: Go diminish yourself.

2.

The moon: Is this fitting for my proper suggestion?!

3.

Hash-m: You will rule (illuminate) day and night.

4.

The moon: A small light is useless during the day!

5.

Hash-m: Yisrael will count days and years through you.

6.

The moon: They need the sun to calculate the seasons. This determines (leap) years!

7.

Hash-m: Great Tzadikim will be called small, like yourself - Yakov, David, and Shmuel.

8.

The moon was still not consoled. Hash-m decreed to bring an 'atonement' for Himself (i.e. to appease the moon) for having diminished the moon.

i.

(Reish Lakish): This is why it says in the Musaf of Rosh Chodesh "Chatas la'Shem."

(k)

Contradiction (Rav Asi): It says "the ground brought grass" on the third day, but it says "No tree...(or grass) had yet sprouted" on Erev Shabbos!

(l)

Answer (Rav Asi): This teaches that the grass was just below the ground, until Adam prayed for it. Then, rain fell and it sprouted.

1.

This teaches that Hash-m desires the prayers of Tzadikim.

(m)

Rav Nachman bar Papa had a garden. He planted seeds, but nothing grew. He prayed. Rain came and it sprouted;

1.

Rav Nachman: This teaches like Rav Asi. (Hash-m desired my prayer.)

3)

SURPRISING THINGS WE LEARN FROM THE TORAH

(a)

(Rav Chanan bar Aba): The Shesu'ah is a unique creation. It has two backs and two spines. (Some say that it is a species. Others say that it is an aberation, like a Siamese twin.)

1.

Question: Was Moshe a hunter, that he would know about such exotic creatures?!

2.

Answer: Rather, this proves that he received the Torah from Hash-m.

(b)

Question: It says "the five Plishtim rulers - of Aza, of Ashdod, of Ashkelon, of Gas, of Akron, and of Avim", but six are listed!

(c)

Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): Five of them were imporant.

(d)

Answer #2 (Rav): The Avim were not Plishtim. They came from Teiman.

(e)

Support (Beraisa): The Avim came from Teiman;

1.

They are called Avim because they corrupted (Ivsu) their place, or because they desired (Ivu) many gods, or because anyone who saw them was seized with Avis (trembling.)

2.

(Rav Yosef): They have 16 rows of teeth.

(f)

(Reish Lakish): Many verses seem to be pointless, but teach important lessons.

(g)

"The Avim dwell in Chatzerim, until Aza (...Kaftorim took their land)" teaches why Yisrael were permitted to take their land.

1.

Avraham had sworn to Avimelech (king of the Plishtim) not to harm him or his children or grandchildren. Hash-m caused the Kaftorim to take the land from the Avim, permitting Yisrael to take it from the Kaftorim. (This is like R. Yochanan, who says that Avim were Plishtim. Also according to Rav, Yisrael were forbidden to take the Avim's land, for they descend from Esav. Hash-m said that Yisrael may not take Esav's land - Devarim 2:5.)

(h)

Similarly, "Sichon Melech ha'Emori... fought b'Melech Mo'av" teaches why Yisrael could take that land.

1.

Yisrael were forbidden to fight Mo'av. Hash-m caused Sichon to take the land from Mo'av, so Yisrael could take it from Sichon.

2.

(Rav Papa): Yisrael was permitted to take the lands of Amon and Mo'av because they were conquered by Sichon.

(i)

(Beraisa): "Tzidonim call Chermon 'Siryon' (and the Emoriyim call it 'Senir')" - Senir and Siryon are mountains of Eretz Yisrael.

1.

This teaches that every nation built a great city and gave it the name of a mountain of Eretz Yisrael;

2.

This teaches that even the mountains of Eretz Yisrael are dear to the nations.

(j)

"(Yosef) transferred the Mitzriyim to the cities" - he exiled them, so they would not look down on his brothers, who were exiled from their land.

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